Rhetoric moves and steps in research articles are associated with certain linguistic patterns, i.e. recurring expressions that are used from paper to paper (see examples of steps above). This is in itself not surprising because academic discourse (and in fact all language) is highly formulaic. This is why using the expressions (such as listed above), is not plagiarism, but in fact, it is highly recommended, especially for L2 writers, whose language skills and stylistic knowledge may not allow them to express themselves to the highest standard. A collection of such expressions organized by sections of the research article is available at the Academic Phrasebank compiled at the University of Manchester.