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Rhetorical Moves in the Introduction Section

Introduction section often follows the so-called Creating a Research Space (CARS) Model and includes the following moves and steps3,4:

Move 1 Establishing a territory  
  Step 1 – Claiming centrality Recently there has been a spate of interest in …


Knowledge of X has great importance for …

   Step 2 – Making topic generalizations X is a common finding in patients with …
   Step 3 – Reviewing items of previous research Several studies have suggested that … (Gordon, 2003; Ratzinger, 2009).
Move 2 Establishing a niche  
  Step 1A – Counterclaiming While Jones and Riley believe X method to be accurate, a close examination demonstrates their method to be flawed.
  Step 1B – Indicating a gap While existing studies have clearly established X, they have not addressed Y.
  Step 1C – Question-raising While Jones and Morgan have established X, these findings raise a number of questions, including …
  Step 1D – Continuing a tradition Earlier studies seemed to suggest X. To verify this finding, more work is urgently needed.
Move 3 Occupying the niche  
  Step 1A – Outlining purposes In this article I argue …


The present research tries to clarify …

  Step 1B – Announcing present research This paper describes three separate studies conducted between March 2008 and January 2009.
  Step 2 – Announcing principal findings The results of the study suggest…
  Step 3 – Indicating RA structure This paper is structured as follows …

Additional steps for Move 3 (optional)4,5:

– Presenting research questions or hypotheses

–  Definitional clarifications

–  Summarizing methods

–  Announcing principal outcomes

–  Stating the value of the present research